The World Anti-Doping Code defines doping as the occurrence of one or more of the Anti-Doping Rule Violations outlined in the Code. ‘Doping’ is more than simply using a prohibited substance or method. Currently there are ten (10) Anti-Doping Rule Violations.
Anti-Doping Rule Violations
Athletes (and other individuals) are responsible for knowing what constitutes an Anti-Doping Rule Violation and the substances and methods which have been included on WADA’s Prohibited List.
The following constitutes an Anti-Doping Rule Violation:
- Presence of a prohibited substance (or its metabolites or markers) in an athlete’s sample
- Use or attempted use by an athlete of a prohibited substance or method
- Evading, refusing or failing to submit to sample collection
- Whereabouts failures (Any combination of three ‘Filing Failures’ and/or ‘Missed Tests’ in a 12-month period)
- Tampering or attempted tampering with any part of the doping control process
- Possession of prohibited substance or a prohibited method
- Trafficking or attempted trafficking of any prohibited substance or prohibited method
- Administration or attempted administration to an athlete of prohibited substance or method
- Prohibited Association
A sanction is imposed once an Anti-Doping Rule Violation has been determined, either when an athlete admits to a violation and waives the right to a hearing, or it can be imposed by an independent panel, such as the Independent Anti-Doping Disciplinary Panel, after a disciplinary hearing.
Length of Sanctions
Sanctions for violating anti-doping regulations may range from a public reprimand to a lifetime ban. The period of ineligibility may vary depending on but not limited to the following:
- Anti-Doping Rule Violation
- The circumstance of an individual case, that is, the person's degree of fault or negligence, and/or the seriousness of the violation.
- The substance and whether or not it is the first time the offence is being committed.
The range of sanctions as stipulated by the World Anti-Doping Code includes:
- Presence of prohibited substance/method, possession, use or attempted use: a maximum of 4 years ineligibility from sport
- Whereabouts: 1 to 2 years ineligibility from sport
- Evading, Refusing or Failing to submit to sample collection: 2 to 4 years ineligibility from sport
- Tampering or Attempted Tampering with Doping Control: a maximum of 4 years ineligibility from sport
- Trafficking or Attempted Trafficking/ Administration or Attempted Administration: a minimum of 4 years ineligibility from sport
- Complicity: 2 to 4 years ineligibility from sport
- Prohibited Association: 1 to 2 years ineligibility from sport
The most common penalty for an Anti-Doping Rule Violation is a sanction imposing a period of ineligibility to participate in sport.
In addition to a period of ineligibility, there may be other consequences of committing an Anti-Doping Rule Violation. Such as:
- Automatic disqualification of individual results, including forfeiture of medals, points and prizes
- Disqualification of results in the event during which a violation occurs
- Disqualification of results in competitions subsequent to the initial test sample
- Ineligibility to compete in the next Olympic or Paralympic Games